Thursday, August 29, 2013

SURVEY THE SCENE (BCLS)

A.    Concept of Survey The Scene
Once you recognized that an emergency has occurred and decide to act, you must make sure that the scene of the emergency is safe for you, the victim/victims, and the bystander/bystanders. In responding to an emergency situation, make a quick survey of the entire scene. Do not only look at the victim, look at the area around the victim. This should take only a few seconds. Decide what to do next, consider the following as you do your survey :
1.    Is the scene safe?
Is the scene safe - You must first decide if the situation is safe for you. You can not help a victim by becoming a victim yourself, know your abilities. If you cannot get to the victim because of hazards such as fire, toxic fumes, heavy traffic, electrical wires or deep swift moving river. Call emergency service or other services needed to handle the specific life threatening hazard.
2.    What happened?
What Happened - If the victim is conscious, ask questions to determine what happened and the extent of the victim's illness or injury. If the victim is unconscious. Ask by-standers to look for clues. The scene itself often gives the answer.
3.    How many people are injured?
How Many People Are Injured - Look beyond the victim you see at first glance. There may be other victims.
4.    Are there bystanders who can help?
Are There By-standers Who Can Help - If there are by-standers, use them to help you find out what happened. By-standers though may not be trained in first aid, but can help you in other important ways such as calling medical attention, by offering emotional support to the victims.
5.    Identify yourself as a person trained in first Aid. Tel the victim and the by-standers who are there, and that you are trained in first Aid, this may help to reassure the victim. It will also help you to take charge of the situation.





The first step of Emergency Action Principle is to Survey the Scene.  As a trained rescuer, it is imperative to assess the scene by observing for the following :
1.  The Safety
Take a look around to ensure the surrounding area is safe for the rescuer as well as the victim.  Note: unless there is an imminent danger, the victim should not be moved.  Assess the surroundings for any people who can help.
2.    The Type of Injury
This observation is extremely important in an effort to understand the reason for sustained injury: automobile accident, electric shock, fall, fire, etc.
3.    The Location
Make sure you are aware of your location (for ex. floor in the building, etc), to help emergency responders locate you.


B.    Every emergency is different, so the amount to be done in each of the steps that will follow may vary
1.    Assess hazards and make the area safe – Your safety comes first! If you cannot enter the area without risking your safety, don’t do it, call Emergency Services immediately and wait for them. If you think you can safely enter the area, look around the emergency scene for anything that can be dangerous or hazardous to you, the casualty or anyone else at the scene. Do whatever you can to make the area safe as long as the result will not be more hazardous or more of a risk to people at the scene. Bystanders can help with making the area safe.
2.    Take charge of the situation – If you are the first aider on the scene act fast. If someone is already in charge, briefly introduce yourself and see if that person needs any help. If there is any chance the casualty could have a head or spinal injury, tell them not to move!
3.    Get Consent. Always identify yourself as a first aider and offer to help. Always ask for consent before touching a conscious adult casualty and always ask for consent from a parent or guardian before touching an unconscious or conscious child or infant. With an unconscious adult casualty consent is implied as it is generally accepted that most people want to live.
4.    Assess Responsiveness. Is the casualty is conscious or unconscious? Note their response while you are asking them for their consent. If they respond continue with the primary survey, and if they don’t respond, be aware that an unconscious casualty is or has the potential of being a breathing emergency.
5.    Call out for help – this will attract bystanders. Help is always useful in an emergency situation. Anytime you need help just call out. Someone can be called over to phone for medical help. Others can bring blankets if needed, get water etc. A bystander can help with any of the following:
a)    Make the area safe
b)    Find all the casualties
c)    Find a first aid kit, or any useful medical supplies
d)    Control the crowd
e)    Call for medical help
f)    Help give first aid, under your directiong) Gather and protect the casualty’s belongings
g)    Take notes, gather information, be a witness
h)    Reassure the casualty’s relatives
i)    Lead the ambulance attendants to the scene of the emergency

You must always notify Emergency Services as soon as you can. Either send a bystander or call yourself. Emergency professionals never get involved in an emergency scene without back-up and neither should you.














REFERENCE

Australia Seeks Skilled Nurses Work Permit Assessment Online. Principles Of Emergency Care. http://madzmas.hubpages.com/hub/PRINCIPLES-OF-EMERGENCY-CARE. (accessed August 20th 2013).
CPR-Pro.com Inc.  2011. Your first choice in CPR & Resuscitation supplies. Established in 2001. Scane Survey http://www.cpr-pro.com/fa_scene_survey.html  (accessed August 20th 2013).
Vicogon. 2011. Principle And Practice Of Emergency Management. http://www.infobarrel.com/Principle_And_Practice_Of_Emergency_Management. (accessed August 20th 2013).
CPR & First Aid Online Training & Certification. Survey the Scene. http://www.cpraccess.com/index.php/page/course/30 (accessed August 20th 2013).

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